McCullough, P. A. et al. Confirmation of a heart failure epidemic: findings from the Resource Utilization Among Congestive Heart Failure (REACH) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 60–69 (2002).
Spahillari, A. et al. Ideal cardiovascular health, cardiovascular remodeling, and heart failure in blacks: the jackson heart study. Circulation. Heart failure 10, e003682 (2017).
McCullough, P. A., Bakris, G. L., Owen, W. F. Jr., Klassen, P. S. & Califf, R. M. Slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy and its cardiovascular consequences. Am. Heart J. 148, 243–251 (2004).
Pitt, B. et al. Cardiovascular events with finerenone in kidney disease and type 2 diabetes. N. Engl. J. Med. 385, 2252–2263 (2021).
Damman, K., Voors, A. A., Navis, G., van Veldhuisen, D. J. & Hillege, H. L. The cardiorenal syndrome in heart failure. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 54, 144–153 (2011).
Bock, J. S. & Gottlieb, S. S. Cardiorenal syndrome: new perspectives. Circulation 121, 2592–2600 (2010).
Ahmad, T. et al. Worsening renal function in patients with acute heart failure undergoing aggressive diuresis is not associated with tubular injury. Circulation 137, 2016–2028 (2018).
McCullough, P. A. et al. Pathophysiology of the cardiorenal syndromes: executive summary from the eleventh consensus conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). Contrib. Nephrol 182, 82–98 (2013).
Pitt, B. et al. Spironolactone for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. N. Engl. J. Med. 370, 1383–1392 (2014).
Arendse, L. B. et al. Novel therapeutic approaches targeting the renin-angiotensin system and associated peptides in hypertension and heart failure. Pharmacol. Rev. 71, 539–570 (2019).
Patel, K. P., Katsurada, K. & Zheng, H. Cardiorenal syndrome: the role of neural connections between the heart and the kidneys. Circ Res. 130, 1601–1617 (2022).
Hartupee, J. & Mann, D. L. Neurohormonal activation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Nat Rev Cardiol 14, 30–38 (2017).
Braunwald, E. & Bristow, M. R. Congestive heart failure: fifty years of progress. Circulation 102, Iv14–Iv23 (2000).
Osborn, J. W., Tyshynsky, R. & Vulchanova, L. Function of renal nerves in kidney physiology and pathophysiology. Annu Rev Physiol 83, 429–450 (2021).
Damman, K. & Testani, J. M. The kidney in heart failure: an update. Eur. Heart J. 36, 1437–1444 (2015).
Veiga, A. C., Milanez, M. I. O., Campos, R. R., Bergamaschi, C. T. & Nishi, E. E. The involvement of renal afferents in the maintenance of cardiorenal diseases. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr Comp. Physiol. 320, R88–R93 (2021).
Solano-Flores, L. P., Rosas-Arellano, M. P. & Ciriello, J. Fos induction in central structures after afferent renal nerve stimulation. Brain Res. 753, 102–119 (1997).
Nishi, E. E. et al. Stimulation of renal afferent fibers leads to activation of catecholaminergic and non-catecholaminergic neurons in the medulla oblongata. Auton. Neurosci. 204, 48–56 (2017).
Sharp, T. E. 3rd & Lefer, D. J. Renal denervation to treat heart failure. Annu Rev Physiol 83, 39–58 (2021).
Cao, W. et al. A salt-induced reno-cerebral reflex activates renin-angiotensin systems and promotes CKD progression. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 26, 1619–1633 (2015).
Zheng, H., Katsurada, K., Liu, X., Knuepfer, M. M. & Patel, K. P. Specific afferent renal denervation prevents reduction in neuronal nitric oxide synthase within the paraventricular nucleus in rats with chronic heart failure. Hypertension 72, 667–675 (2018).
Booth, L. C. et al. Renal, cardiac, and autonomic effects of catheter-based renal denervation in ovine heart failure. Hypertension 78, 706–715 (2021).
Davies, J. E. et al. First-in-man safety evaluation of renal denervation for chronic systolic heart failure: primary outcome from REACH-Pilot study. Int. J. Cardiol. 162, 189–192 (2013).
Polhemus, D. J. et al. Renal sympathetic denervation protects the failing heart via inhibition of neprilysin activity in the kidney. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 70, 2139–2153 (2017).
Sharp, T. E. 3rd et al. Renal denervation prevents heart failure progression via inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 72, 2609–2621 (2018).
Xu, B., Zheng, H., Liu, X. & Patel, K. P. Activation of afferent renal nerves modulates RVLM-projecting PVN neurons. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 308, H1103–H1111 (2015).
Calaresu, F. R. & Ciriello, J. Renal afferent nerves affect discharge rate of medullary and hypothalamic single units in the cat. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 3, 311–320 (1981).
Wyss, J. M. & Donovan, M. K. A direct projection from the kidney to the brainstem. Brain Res. 298, 130–134 (1984).
Huang, L. et al. A visual circuit related to habenula underlies the antidepressive effects of light therapy. Neuron 102, 128–142.e128 (2019).
Han, W. et al. A neural circuit for gut-induced reward. Cell 175, 665–678 e623 (2018).
Zingg, B. et al. AAV-mediated anterograde transsynaptic tagging: mapping corticocollicular input-defined neural pathways for defense behaviors. Neuron 93, 33–47 (2017).
Zingg, B., Peng, B., Huang, J., Tao, H. W. & Zhang, L. I. Synaptic specificity and application of anterograde transsynaptic AAV for probing neural circuitry. J. Neurosci. 40, 3250–3267 (2020).
Nomura, K. et al. [Na(+)] increases in body fluids sensed by central Nax induce sympathetically mediated blood pressure elevations via H(+)-dependent activation of ASIC1a. Neuron 101, 60–75.e66 (2019).
Matsuda, T. et al. Distinct neural mechanisms for the control of thirst and salt appetite in the subfornical organ. Nat. Neurosci. 20, 230–241 (2017).
Premer, C., Lamondin, C., Mitzey, A., Speth, R. C. & Brownfield, M. S. Immunohistochemical localization of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 angiotensin II receptor subtypes in the rat adrenal, pituitary, and brain with a perspective commentary. Int. J. Hypertens. 2013, 175428 (2013).
Mangiapane, M. L. & Simpson, J. B. Subfornical organ: forebrain site of pressor and dipsogenic action of angiotensin II. Am. J. Physiol. 239, R382–R389 (1980).
Qian, J. F. et al. Angiotensinogen gene expression is stimulated by the cAMP-responsive element binding protein in opossum kidney cells. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 8, 1072–1079 (1997).
Altarejos, J. Y. et al. The Creb1 coactivator Crtc1 is required for energy balance and fertility. Nat. Med. 14, 1112–1117 (2008).
Weiss, M. L., Chowdhury, S. I., Patel, K. P., Kenney, M. J. & Huang, J. Neural circuitry of the kidney: NO-containing neurons. Brain Res. 919, 269–282 (2001).
Cano, G., Card, J. P. & Sved, A. F. Dual viral transneuronal tracing of central autonomic circuits involved in the innervation of the two kidneys in rat. J. Comp. Neurol 471, 462–481 (2004).
Nijima, A. Afferent discharges from arterial mechanoreceptors in the kidney of the rabbit. J. Physiol. 219, 477–485 (1971).
Cao, W. et al. Reno-cerebral reflex activates the renin-angiotensin system, promoting oxidative stress and renal damage after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Antioxid Redox Signal 27, 415–432 (2017).
Veelken, R. & Schmieder, R. E. Renal denervation–implications for chronic kidney disease. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 10, 305–313 (2014).
Husain-Syed, F. et al. Congestive nephropathy: a neglected entity? Proposal for diagnostic criteria and future perspectives. ESC Heart Failure 8, 183–203 (2021).
Mullens, W. et al. Evaluation of kidney function throughout the heart failure trajectory – a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur. J. Heart Failure 22, 584–603 (2020).
Sullivan, R. D., Mehta, R. M., Tripathi, R., Reed, G. L. & Gladysheva, I. P. Renin activity in heart failure with reduced systolic function–new insights. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, 3182 (2019).
Schiller, A. M., Pellegrino, P. R. & Zucker, I. H. The renal nerves in chronic heart failure: efferent and afferent mechanisms. Front Physiol. 6, 224 (2015).
Booth, L. C., May, C. N. & Yao, S. T. The role of the renal afferent and efferent nerve fibers in heart failure. Front Physiol. 6, 270 (2015).
Cao, W. et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for assessing renal perfusion impairment and predicting acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease progression. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1397–1411 (2017).
Ashton, N., Clarke, C. G., Eddy, D. E. & Swift, F. V. Mechanisms involved in the activation of ischemically sensitive, afferent renal nerve mediated reflex increases in hind-limb vascular resistance in the anesthetized rabbit. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 72, 637–643 (1994).
Huang, B. S. & Leenen, F. H. The brain renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: a major mechanism for sympathetic hyperactivity and left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Curr. Heart Fail Rep. 6, 81–88 (2009).
Wang, H. W. et al. Mineralocorticoid and angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the subfornical organ mediate angiotensin II – induced hypothalamic reactive oxygen species and hypertension. Neuroscience 329, 112–121 (2016).
Krum, H. et al. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension: a multicentre safety and proof-of-principle cohort study. Lancet 373, 1275–1281 (2009).
Symplicity, H. T. N. I. et al. Renal sympathetic denervation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (The Symplicity HTN-2 Trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 376, 1903–1909 (2010).
Gao, J. Q., Xie, Y., Yang, W., Zheng, J. P. & Liu, Z. J. Effects of percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation on cardiac function and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure. Rev. Port. Cardiol. 36, 45–51 (2017).
Drozdz, T. et al. Renal denervation in patients with symptomatic chronic heart failure despite resynchronization therapy: a pilot study. Postepy Kardiol Interwencyjnej 15, 240–246 (2019).
DiBona, G. F. & Kopp, U. C. Neural control of renal function. Physiol. Rev. 77, 75–197 (1997).
Clayton, S. C., Haack, K. K. & Zucker, I. H. Renal denervation modulates angiotensin receptor expression in the renal cortex of rabbits with chronic heart failure. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 300, F31–F39 (2011).
Matsusaka, T. et al. Angiotensin receptor blocker protection against podocyte-induced sclerosis is podocyte angiotensin II type 1 receptor-independent. Hypertension 55, 967–973 (2010).
Fan, Q. et al. Dectin-1 contributes to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by regulating macrophage polarization and neutrophil infiltration. Circulation 139, 663–678 (2019).
Lopes, N. R. et al. Afferent innervation of the ischemic kidney contributes to renal dysfunction in renovascular hypertensive rats. Pflugers Arch. 472, 325–334 (2020).
Yu, Y., Wei, S. G., Weiss, R. M. & Felder, R. B. Angiotensin II Type 1a receptors in the subfornical organ modulate neuroinflammation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in heart failure rats. Neuroscience 381, 46–58 (2018).