Sobottke, R. et al. Predictors of surgical, general and follow-up complications in lumbar spinal stenosis relative to patient age as emerged from the Spine Tango Registry. Eur. Spine J. 21, 411–417 (2012).
Imagama, S. et al. Back muscle strength and spinal mobility are predictors of quality of life in middle-aged and elderly males. Eur. Spine J. 20, 954–961 (2011).
O’Lynnger, T. M. et al. Trends for spine surgery for the elderly: Implications for access to healthcare in North America. Neurosurgery 77, S136–S141 (2015).
Parkkola, R., Rytökoski, U. & Kormano, M. Magnetic resonance imaging of the discs and trunk muscles in patients with chronic low back pain and healthy control subjects. Spine 18, 830–836 (1993).
Kjaer, P., Bendix, T., Sorensen, J. S., Korsholm, L. & Leboeuf-Yde, C. Are MRI-defined fat infiltrations in the multifidus muscles associated with low back pain?. BMC Med. 5, 2 (2007).
Delisle, M. B., Laroche, M., Dupont, H., Rochaix, P. & Rumeau, J. L. Morphological analyses of paraspinal muscles: Comparison of progressive lumbar kyphosis (camptocormia) and narrowing of lumbar canal by disc protrusions. Neuromuscul. Disord. 3, 579–582 (1993).
Agha, O. et al. Intervertebral disc herniation effects on multifidus muscle composition and resident stem cell populations. JOR Spine 3, e1091 (2020).
Reid, S., Hazard, R. G. & Fenwick, J. W. Isokinetic trunk-strength deficits in people with and without low back pain: A comparative study with consideration of effort. J. Spinal Disord. 4, 68–72 (1991).
Brown, S. H. et al. ISSLS prize winner: Adaptations to the multifidus muscle in response to experimentally induced intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine 36, 1728–1736 (2011).
Park, S. W. et al. Decreased muscle strength and quality in older adults with type 2 diabetes: The health, aging, and body composition study. Diabetes 55, 1813–1818 (2006).
Beenakker, K. G. et al. Patterns of muscle strength loss with age in the general population and patients with a chronic inflammatory state. Ageing Res. Rev. 9, 431–436 (2010).
Waters, D. L., Hale, L., Grant, A. M., Herbison, P. & Goulding, A. Osteoporosis and gait and balance disturbances in older sarcopenic obese New Zealanders. Osteoporos. Int. 21, 351–357 (2010).
Stenholm, S. et al. Long-term determinants of muscle strength decline: Prospective evidence from the 22-year mini-Finland follow-up survey. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 60, 77–85 (2012).
Mika, A., Unnithan, V. B. & Mika, P. Differences in thoracic kyphosis and in back muscle strength in women with bone loss due to osteoporosis. Spine 30, 241–246 (2005).
Roghani, T., Zavieh, M. K., Manshadi, F. D., King, N. & Katzman, W. Age-related hyperkyphosis: Update of its potential causes and clinical impacts: Narrative review. Aging Clin. Exp. Res. 29, 567–577 (2017).
Sun, D. et al. Correlation between intervertebral disc degeneration, paraspinal muscle atrophy, and lumbar facet joints degeneration in patients with lumbar disc herniation. BMC Musculoskelet. Disord. 18, 167 (2017).
Özcan-Ekşi, E. E., Ekşi, M. Ş & Akçal, M. A. Severe lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration is associated with modic changes and fatty infiltration in the paraspinal muscles at all lumbar levels, except for L1–L2: A cross-sectional analysis of 50 symptomatic women and 50 age-matched symptomatic men. World Neurosurg. 122, e1069–e1077 (2019).
Zhao, W. P., Kawaguchi, Y., Matsui, H., Kanamori, M. & Kimura, T. Histochemistry and morphology of the multifidus muscle in lumbar disc herniation: Comparative study between diseased and normal sides. Spine 25, 2191–2199 (2000).
Glassman, S. D. et al. The impact of positive sagittal balance in adult spinal deformity. Spine 30, 2024–2029 (2005).
Sinaki, M., Itoi, E., Rogers, J. W., Bergstralh, E. & Wahner, H. Correlation of back extensor strength with thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis in estrogen-deficient women. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 75, 370–374 (1996).
Sinaki, M., Brey, R. H., Hughes, C. A., Larson, D. R. & Kaufman, K. R. Balance disorder and increased risk of falls in osteoporosis and kyphosis: Significance of kyphotic posture and muscle strength. Osteoporos. Int. 16, 1004–1010 (2005).
Granito, R. N., Aveiro, M. C., Renno, A. C. M., Oishi, J. & Driusso, P. Comparison of thoracic kyphosis degree, trunk muscle strength and joint position sense among healthy and osteoporotic elderly women: A cross-sectional preliminary study. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr. 54, e199–e202 (2012).
Weale, R. & Weale, M. The Dowager’s hump: an early start?. Gerontology 58, 212–215 (2012).
Malakoutian, M. et al. Dysfunctional paraspinal muscles in adult spinal deformity patients lead to increased spinal loading. Eur. Spine J. 31, 2383–2398 (2022).
Cho, T. G., Park, S. W. & Kim, Y. B. Chronic paraspinal muscle injury model in rat. J. Korean Neurosurg. Soc. 59, 430 (2016).
Hey, H. W. D. et al. Paraspinal myopathy-induced intervertebral disc degeneration and thoracolumbar kyphosis in TSC1mKO mice model—A preliminary study. Spine J. 22, 483–494 (2022).
Hodges, P., Holm, A. K., Hansson, T. & Holm, S. Rapid atrophy of the lumbar multifidus follows experimental disc or nerve root injury. Spine 31, 2926–2933 (2006).
Hodges, P. W. et al. Multifidus muscle changes after back injury are characterized by structural remodeling of muscle, adipose and connective tissue, but not muscle atrophy: Molecular and morphological evidence. Spine 40, 1057–1071 (2015).
James, G., Klyne, D. M., Millecamps, M., Stone, L. S. & Hodges, P. W. ISSLS Prize in basic science 2019: Physical activity attenuates fibrotic alterations to the multifidus muscle associated with intervertebral disc degeneration. Eur. Spine J. 28, 893–904 (2019).
Schneider, D. L., von Muhlen, D., Barrett-Connor, E. & Sartoris, D. J. Kyphosis does not equal vertebral fractures: The Rancho Bernardo study. J. Rheumatol. 31, 747–752 (2004).
Katzman, W. B., Wanek, L., Shepherd, J. A. & Sellmeyer, D. E. Age-related hyperkyphosis: Its causes, consequences, and management. J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 40, 352–360 (2010).
Kudo, D. et al. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 in paraspinal muscles of patients with lumbar kyphosis: A preliminary study. Clin. Interv. Aging 13, 1633 (2018).
Hicks, G. E. et al. Cross-sectional associations between trunk muscle composition, back pain, and physical function in the health, aging and body composition study. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 60, 882–887 (2005).
Mengiardi, B. et al. Fat content of lumbar paraspinal muscles in patients with chronic low back pain and in asymptomatic volunteers: Quantification with MR spectroscopy. Radiology 240, 786–792 (2006).
Jiang, J. et al. Multifidus degeneration, a new risk factor for lumbar spinal stenosis: A case-control study. World Neurosurg. 99, 226–231 (2017).
Chen, Y. Y., Pao, J. L., Liaw, C. K., Hsu, W. L. & Yang, R. S. Image changes of para- spinal muscles and clinical correlations in patients with unilateral lumbar spinal stenosis. Eur. Spine J. 23, 999–1006 (2014).
Shahidi, B. et al. Lumbar multifidus muscle degenerates in individuals with chronic degenerative lumbar spine pathology. J. Orthop. Res. 35, 2700–2706 (2017).
Mahdy, M. A., Lei, H. Y., Wakamatsu, J. I., Hosaka, Y. Z. & Nishimura, T. Comparative study of muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin and glycerol injury. Ann. Anat. 202, 18–27 (2015).
Laws, N. & Hoey, A. Progression of kyphosis in mdx mice. J. Appl. Physiol. 97, 1970–1977 (2004).
Iba, K. et al. Mice with a targeted deletion of the tetranectin gene exhibit a spinal deformity. Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 7817–7825 (2001).
Lorbergs, A. L. et al. A longitudinal study of trunk muscle properties and severity of thoracic kyphosis in women and men: The Framingham study. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 74, 420–427 (2019).
Gsell, K. Y., Zwambag, D. P., Fournier, D. E., Séguin, C. A. & Brown, S. H. M. Paraspinal muscle passive stiffness remodels in direct response to spine stiffness: A study using the ENT1-deficient mouse. Spine 42, 1440–1446 (2017).
Mahdy, M. A., Warita, K. & Hosaka, Y. Z. Glycerol induces early fibrosis in regenerating rat skeletal muscle. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 80, 1646–1649 (2018).
Nachit, M. et al. Myosteatosis rather than sarcopenia associates with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease preclinical models. J. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 12, 144–158 (2021).
Roche, S. M., Gumucio, J. P., Brooks, S. V., Mendias, C. L. & Claflin, D. R. Measurement of maximum isometric force generated by permeabilized skeletal muscle fibres. J. Vis. Exp. 100, e52695 (2015).
Brenner, B. & Eisenberg, E. Rate of force generation in muscle: Correlation with actomyosin ATPase activity in solution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 3542–3546 (1986).
Mazara, N. et al. Rate of force development is Ca2+ dependent and influenced by Ca2+ sensitivity in human single muscle fibres from older adults. Exp. Gerontol. 150, 111348 (2021).
Noonan, A. M., Séguin, C. A. & Brown, S. H. M. Paraspinal muscle contractile function is impaired in the ENT1-deficient mouse model of progressive spine pathology. Spine 46, E710–E718 (2021).
Lieber, R. L., Yeh, Y. & Baskin, R. J. Sarcomere length determination using laser diffraction. Effect of beam and fiber diameter. Biophys. J. 45, 1007–1016 (1984).
Tam, V. et al. Histological and reference system for the analysis of mouse intervertebral disc. J. Orthopaed. Res. 36, 233–243 (2018).