Monday, February 26, 2024
BestWooCommerceThemeBuilttoBoostSales-728x90

Perception of interpersonal distance and social distancing before and during COVID-19 pandemic – Scientific Reports


  • International Monetary Fund (2020). World Economic Outlook, October.

  • Chu, D. K. et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 395(10242), 1973–1987 (2020).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cortellessa, G. et al. Close proximity risk assessment for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sci. Total Environ. 794, 148749 (2021).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gokmen, Y., Turen, U., Erdem, H. & Tokmak, İ. National preferred interpersonal distance curbs the spread of COVID-19: A cross-country analysis. Disast. Med. Public Health Preparedness 15(6), e20–e26 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2020. Social distancing, quarantine, and isolation.

  • Hsiao, T. C., Chuang, H. C., Griffith, S. M., Chen, S. J. & Young, L. H. COVID-19: An aerosol’s point of view from expiration to transmission to viral-mechanism. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20(5), 905–910 (2020).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sun, C. & Zhai, Z. The efficacy of social distance and ventilation effectiveness in preventing COVID-19 transmission. Sustain. Cities Soc. 62, 102390 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kwon, S. et al. Association of social distancing and face mask use with risk of COVID-19. Nat. Commun. 12(1), 3737 (2021).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • World Health Organization. Advice on the use of masks in the context of covid-19: interim guidance. 5 Jun 2020. https://www.who.int/publications-detail/advice-on-the-use-of-masks-in-the-community-during-home-care-and-in-healthcare-settings-in-the-context-of-the-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)-outbreak

  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Using face masks in the community—reducing covid-19 transmission from potentially asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic people through the use of face masks. 2020. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/using-face-masks-community-reducing-covid-19-transmission.

  • Lazzarino, A. I., Steptoe, A., Hamer, M., & Michie, S. Covid-19: important potential side effects of wearing face masks that we should bear in mind. The BMJ, 369 (2020).

  • Cohen, A. & Einav, L. The effects of mandatory seat belt laws on driving behavior and traffic fatalities. Rev. Econ. Stat. 85(4), 828–843 (2003).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Evans, W. N. & Graham, J. D. Risk reduction or risk compensation? The case of mandatory safety-belt use laws. J. Risk Uncertain. 4(1), 61–73 (1991).

    Article 
    MathSciNet 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Peltzman, S. The effects of automobile safety regulation. J. Polit. Econ. 83(4), 677–725 (1975).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Aranguren, M., Cartaud, A., Cissé, I., & Coello, Y. People interact closer when a face mask is worn but risk compensation is at best partial. Eur. J. Public Health, ckad161 (2023).

  • Hall, P. A. et al. Do the vaccinated perform less distancing, mask wearing and hand hygiene? A test of the risk compensation hypothesis in a representative sample during the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccine 41(27), 4027–4030 (2023).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Seres, G., Balleyer, A., Cerutti, N., Friedrichsen, J. & Süer, M. Face mask use and physical distancing before and after mandatory masking: No evidence on risk compensation in public waiting lines. J. Econ. Behav. Org. 192, 765–781 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Millest, A., Saeed, S., Symons, C., & Carter, H. (2023). Effect of face-covering use on adherence to other COVID-19 protective behaviours: A systematic review. medRxiv, 2023–04.

  • Sun, L. X. et al. Association between health behaviours and the COVID-19 vaccination: Risk compensation among healthcare workers in Taizhou, China. Hum. Vacc. Immunotherap. 18(1), 2029257 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Yang, M. G., Wang, L. J., Xu, L. Y., Ke, M., & Sun, L. X. (2023). Health behaviours among travellers regarding risk compensation following COVID-19 vaccination in Taizhou, China. Can. J. Infect. Dis. Med. Microbiol. (2023).

  • Welsch, R., Hecht, H., Chuang, L. & von Castell, C. Interpersonal distance in the SARS-CoV-2 crisis. Hum. Factors 62(7), 1095–1101 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Saporta, N. et al. Opposing association of situational and chronic loneliness with interpersonal distance. Brain Sci. 11(9), 1135 (2021).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Welsch, R., Wessels, M., Bernhard, C., Thönes, S. & von Castell, C. Physical distancing and the perception of interpersonal distance in the COVID-19 crisis. Sci. Rep. 11(1), 1–9 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Iachini, T. et al. Social distance during the COVID-19 pandemic reflects perceived rather than actual risk. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18(11), 5504 (2021).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Biggio, M., Bisio, A., Bruno, V., Garbarini, F. & Bove, M. Wearing a mask shapes interpersonal space during COVID-19 pandemic. Brain Sci. 12(5), 682 (2022).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cartaud, A., Quesque, F. & Coello, Y. Wearing a face mask against Covid-19 results in a reduction of social distancing. Plos One 15(12), e0243023 (2020).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kühne, K., Fischer, M. H. & Jeglinski-Mende, M. A. During the COVID-19 pandemic participants prefer settings with a face mask, no interaction and at a closer distance. Sci. Rep. 12(1), 12777 (2022).

    Article 
    ADS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Brosch, T., Pourtois, G. & Sander, D. The perception and categorisation of emotional stimuli: A review. Cognit. Emot. 24(3), 377–400 (2010).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Proffitt, D. R. Embodied perception and the economy of action. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 1(2), 110–122 (2006).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hansen, J. & Steinmetz, J. Motivated level of construal: How temperature affects the construal level of state-relevant stimuli. Motiv. Emot. 43, 434–446 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Proffitt, D. R., Stefanucci, J., Banton, T. & Epstein, W. The role of effort in perceiving distance. Psychol. Sci. 14(2), 106–112 (2003).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Witt, J. K., Proffitt, D. R. & Epstein, W. Perceiving distance: A role of effort and intent. Perception 33(5), 577–590 (2004).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Balcetis, E. & Dunning, D. Wishful seeing: More desired objects are seen as closer. Psychol. Sci. 21(1), 147–152 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Alter, A. L. & Balcetis, E. Fondness makes the distance grow shorter: Desired locations seem closer because they seem more vivid. J. Exp. Social Psychol. 47(1), 16–21 (2011).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cole, S., Balcetis, E. & Zhang, S. Visual perception and regulatory conflict: Motivation and physiology influence distance perception. J. Exp. Psychol. Gener. 142(1), 18 (2013).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Givon-Benjio, N. & Okon-Singer, H. Biased estimations of interpersonal distance in non-clinical social anxiety. J. Anx. Disord. 69, 102171 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Givon-Benjio, N., Oren-Yagoda, R., Aderka, I. M. & Okon-Singer, H. Biased distance estimation in social anxiety disorder: A new avenue for understanding avoidance behavior. Depress. Anx. 37(12), 1243–1252 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cartaud, A., Ruggiero, G., Ott, L., Iachini, T. & Coello, Y. Physiological response to facial expressions in peripersonal space determines interpersonal distance in a social interaction context. Front. Psychol. 9, 657 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Coello, Y., Bourgeois, J. & Iachini, T. Embodied perception of reachable space: How do we manage threatening objects?. Cognitiv. Process. 13, 131–135 (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ferri, F., Tajadura-Jiménez, A., Väljamäe, A., Vastano, R. & Costantini, M. Emotion-inducing approaching sounds shape the boundaries of multisensory peripersonal space. Neuropsychologia 70, 468–475 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Krpan, D. & Schnall, S. Close or far? Affect explains conflicting findings on motivated distance perception to rewards. Acta Psychol. 190, 188–198 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Valdés-Conroy, B., Román, F. J., Hinojosa, J. A. & Shorkey, S. P. So far so good: Emotion in the peripersonal/extrapersonal space. PLoS One 7(11), e49162 (2012).

    Article 
    ADS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Serino, S. et al. Sharpening of peripersonal space during the COVID-19 pandemic. Curr. Biol. 31(14), R889–R890 (2021).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kühne, K. & Jeglinski-Mende, M. A. Refraining from interaction can decrease fear of physical closeness during COVID-19. Sci. Rep. 13(1), 7700 (2023).

    Article 
    ADS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Silva, W. A. D., de Sampaio Brito, T. R., & Pereira, C. R. COVID-19 anxiety scale (CAS): Development and psychometric properties. Current Psychology, 1–10 (2020).

  • Spitzer, R. L. et al. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Arch. Intern. Med. 166, 1092–1097 (2006).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Monterrosa-Blanco, A., Cassiani-Miranda, C. A., Scoppetta, O. & Monterrosa-Castro, A. Generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) has adequate psychometric properties in Colombian general practitioners during COVID-19 pandemic. Gener. Hospital Psychiatry 70, 147 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kinney, A. R., Middleton, A. & Graham, J. E. A Bayesian analysis of non-significant rehabilitation findings: Evaluating the evidence in favour of truly absent treatment effects. Ann. Phys. Rehabil. Med. 64(4), 101425 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G. & Buchner, A. G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behav. Res. Methods 39(2), 175–191 (2007).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kang, H. Sample size determination and power analysis using the G* Power software. J. Edu. Eval. Health Professions 18, 1149215 (2021).


    Google Scholar
     

  • Bouton, M. E. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain. Prevent. Med/ 68, 29–36 (2014).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kelly, M. P. & Barker, M. Why is changing health-related behaviour so difficult?. Public Health 136, 109–116 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Casey, B. J. et al. Behavioral and neural correlates of delay of gratification 40 years later. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(36), 14998–15003 (2011).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Marteau, T., Kelly, M., & Hollands, G. Changing population behavior and reducing health disparities: Exploring the potential of “choice architecture” interventions (2015).

  • Waters, A. M. et al. Augmenting one-session treatment of children’s specific phobias with attention training to positive stimuli. Behav. Res. Therapy 62, 107–119 (2014).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Nguyen, L., Murphy, K. & Andrews, G. Immediate and long-term efficacy of executive functions cognitive training in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol. Bull. 145(7), 698 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Larue, G. S. et al. Is it safe to cross? Identification of trains and their approach speed at level crossings. Saf. Sci. 103, 33–42 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Leibowitz, H. W. Grade crossing accidents and human factors engineering: How a discipline combining technology and behavioral science can help reduce traffic fatalities. Am. Sci. 73(6), 558–562 (1985).


    Google Scholar
     

  • Shiomi, M., Kubota, A., Kimoto, M., Iio, T. & Shimohara, K. Stay away from me: Coughing increases social distance even in a virtual environment. Plos One 17(12), e0279717 (2022).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Riskind, J. H., & Calvete, E. Beyond logical errors: Preliminary evidence for the “looming vulnerability distortions questionnaire” of cognitive-perceptual distortions in anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1–21 (2023).

  • Leibovich, T., Cohen, N. & Henik, A. Itsy bitsy spider? Valence and self-relevance predict size estimation. Biol. Psychol. 121, 138–145 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Shiban, Y. et al. Treatment effect on biases in size estimation in spider phobia. Biol. Psychol. 121, 146–152 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vasey, M. W. et al. It was as big as my head, I swear! Biased spider size estimation in spider phobia. J. Anx. Disord. 26(1), 20–24 (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Clerkin, E. M., Cody, M. W., Stefanucci, J. K., Proffitt, D. R. & Teachman, B. A. Imagery and fear influence height perception. J. Anx. Disord. 23(3), 381–386 (2009).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Stefanucci, J. K. & Proffitt, D. R. The roles of altitude and fear in the perception of height. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percep. Perform. 35(2), 424 (2009).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Perry, A., Rubinsten, O., Peled, L. & Shamay-Tsoory, S. G. Don’t stand so close to me: A behavioral and ERP study of preferred interpersonal distance. Neuroimage 83, 761–769 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sorokowska, A. et al. Preferred interpersonal distances: A global comparison. J. Cross-Cult. Psychol. 48(4), 577–592 (2017).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Balcetis, E. & Dunning, D. See what you want to see: Motivational influences on visual perception. J. Personal. Social Psychol. 91(4), 612 (2006).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zadra, J. R. & Clore, G. L. Emotion and perception: The role of affective information. Wiley interdiscip. Rev. Cognit. Sci. 2(6), 676–685 (2011).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Firestone, C. & Scholl, B. J. Cognition does not affect perception: Evaluating the evidence for “top-down” effects. Behav. Brain Sci. 39, e229 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     



  • Source link

    Related Articles

    Leave a Reply

    [td_block_social_counter facebook="beingmedicos1" twitter="being_medicos" youtube="beingmedicosgroup" style="style8 td-social-boxed td-social-font-icons" tdc_css="eyJhbGwiOnsibWFyZ2luLWJvdHRvbSI6IjM4IiwiZGlzcGxheSI6IiJ9LCJwb3J0cmFpdCI6eyJtYXJnaW4tYm90dG9tIjoiMzAiLCJkaXNwbGF5IjoiIn0sInBvcnRyYWl0X21heF93aWR0aCI6MTAxOCwicG9ydHJhaXRfbWluX3dpZHRoIjo3Njh9" custom_title="Stay Connected" block_template_id="td_block_template_8" f_header_font_family="712" f_header_font_transform="uppercase" f_header_font_weight="500" f_header_font_size="17" border_color="#dd3333"]
    - Advertisement -spot_img

    Latest Articles