Group EBCTC. Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet. 1998;351:1451–67.
Shapiro CL, Recht A. Side effects of adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1997–2008.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Invasive Breast Cancer. 2021. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/breast.pdf.
Waters EA, McNeel TS, Stevens WM, Freedman AN. Use of tamoxifen and raloxifene for breast cancer chemoprevention in 2010. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;134:875–80.
Smith SG, Sestak I, Forster A, Partridge A, Side L, Wolf MS, et al. Factors affecting uptake and adherence to breast cancer chemoprevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2016;27:575–90.
Ropka ME, Keim J, Philbrick JT. Patient decisions about breast cancer chemoprevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:3090–5.
Crew KD, Albain KS, Hershman DL, Unger JM, Lo SS. How do we increase uptake of tamoxifen and other anti-estrogens for breast cancer prevention? NPJ Breast Cancer. 2017;3:20.
Smith SG, Sestak I, Howell A, Forbes J, Cuzick J. Participant-reported symptoms and their effect on long-term adherence in the international breast cancer intervention study I (IBIS I). J Clin Oncol. 2017;35:2666–73.
Cella D, Fallowfield LJ. Recognition and management of treatment-related side effects for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;107:167–80.
O’Regan RM, Jordan VC. The evolution of tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer: selective oestrogen-receptor modulators and downregulators. Lancet Oncol. 2002;3:207–14.
American Cancer Society: Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer: Drugs that block estrogen receptors: Tamoxifen. 2021. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/treatment/hormone-therapy-for-breast-cancer.html.
Electronic Medicines Compendium (EMC): SmPC: Tamoxifen (Mylan) 20 mg Tablets. 2021. https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/12524/smpc.
Fisher B, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Redmond CK, Kavanah M, Cronin WM, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:1371–88.
Cuzick J, Forbes J, Edwards R, Baum M, Cawthorn S, Coates A, et al. First results from the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS-I): a randomised prevention trial. Lancet 2002;360:817–24.
Powles T, Eeles R, Ashley S, Easton D, Chang J, Dowsett M, et al. Interim analysis of the incidence of breast cancer in the Royal Marsden Hospital tamoxifen randomised chemoprevention trial. Lancet. 1998;352:98–101.
Vogel VG, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Cronin WM, Cecchini RS, Atkins JN, et al. Effects of tamoxifen vs raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. J Am Med Assoc. 2006;295:2727–41.
Lin JH, Zhang SM, Manson JE. Predicting adherence to tamoxifen for breast cancer adjuvant therapy and prevention. Cancer Prev Res. 2011;4:1360–5.
Peddie N, Agnew S, Crawford M, Dixon D, MacPherson I, Fleming L. The impact of medication side effects on adherence and persistence to hormone therapy in breast cancer survivors: a qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis. Breast. 2021;58:147–59.
Lash TL, Fox MP, Westrup JL, Fink AK, Silliman RA. Adherence to tamoxifen over the five-year course. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006;99:215–20.
He W, Fang F, Varnum C, Eriksson M, Hall P, Czene K. Predictors of discontinuation of adjuvant hormone therapy in patients with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33:2262–9.
Nelson HD, Fu R, Zakher B, Pappas M, McDonagh M. Medication use for the risk reduction of primary breast cancer in women: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US preventive services task force. J Am Med Assoc. 2019;322:868–86.
DeCensi A, Puntoni M, Guerrieri-Gonzaga A, Caviglia S, Avino F, Cortesi L, et al. Randomized placebo controlled trial of low-dose tamoxifen to prevent local and contralateral recurrence in breast intraepithelial neoplasia. J Clin Oncol. 2019;37:1629–37.
Lazzeroni M, Puntoni M, Guerrieri-Gonzaga A, Serrano D, Boni L, Buttiron Webber T, et al. Randomized placebo controlled trial of low-dose tamoxifen to prevent recurrence in breast noninvasive neoplasia: a 10-year follow-up of TAM-01 study. J Clin Oncol. 2023;37:1629.
Eriksson M, Eklund M, Borgquist S, Hellgren R, Margolin S, Thoren L, et al. Low-dose tamoxifen for mammographic density reduction: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2021;39:1899–908.
Wang J, Azziz A, Fan B, Malkov S, Klifa C, Newitt D, et al. Agreement of mammographic measures of volumetric breast density to MRI. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81653.
Fallowfield LJ, Leaity SK, Howell A, Benson S, Cella D. Assessment of quality of life in women undergoing hormonal therapy for breast cancer: validation of an endocrine symptom subscale for the FACT-B. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1999;55:189–99.
Sheean PM, Hoskins K, Stolley M. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;135:663–80.
Gianni L, Panzini I, Li S, Gelber RD, Collins J, Holmberg SB, et al. Ocular toxicity during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for early breast cancer: results from International Breast Cancer Study Group trials. Cancer. 2006;106:505–13.
Browall M, Kenne Sarenmalm E, Nasic S, Wengstrom Y, Gaston-Johansson F. Validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS): an instrument for the evaluation of symptom prevalence, characteristics, and distress. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2013;46:131–41.
Portenoy RK, Thaler HT, Kornblith AB, Lepore JM, Friedlander-Klar H, Kiyasu E, et al. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale: an instrument for the evaluation of symptom prevalence, characteristics and distress. Eur J Cancer. 1994;30A:1326–36.
Likert R. A technique for the development of attitude scales. Educ Psychol Measurement. 1952;12:313–5.
Bhatia S, Palomares MR, Hageman L, Chen Y, Landier W, Smith K, et al. A randomized phase IIb study of low-dose tamoxifen in chest-irradiated cancer survivors at risk for breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2021;27:967–74.
Day R, Ganz PA, Costantino JP, Cronin WM, Wickerham DL, Fisher B. Health-related quality of life and tamoxifen in breast cancer prevention: a report from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:2659–69.
Land SR, Wickerham DL, Costantino JP, Ritter MW, Vogel VG, Lee M, et al. Patient-reported symptoms and quality of life during treatment with tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast cancer prevention: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. J Am Med Assoc. 2006;295:2742–51.
Land SR, Walcott FL, Liu Q, Wickerham DL, Costantino JP, Ganz PA. Symptoms and QOL as predictors of chemoprevention adherence in NRG oncology/NSABP trial P-1. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016;108:djv365.
Cancer Research UK: Breastcancer: Treatment: Homone therapy: side effects. 2020; https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/breast-cancer/treatment/hormone-therapy.
Breastcancer.org: Newly diagnosed: Treatment: Hormonal treatment: Tamoxifen: Tamoxifen side effects. 2022. https://www.breastcancer.org/treatment/hormonal-therapy/tamoxifen#section-tamoxifen-side-effects.
Andrew P, Valiani S, MacIsaac J, Mithoowani H, Verma S. Tamoxifen-associated skin reactions in breast cancer patients: from case report to literature review. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014;148:1–5.
Fallowfield L, Fleissig A, Edwards R, West A, Powles TJ, Howell A, et al. Tamoxifen for the prevention of breast cancer: psychosocial impact on women participating in two randomized controlled trials. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:1885–92.
FACT-ES version 4, Additional concerns, Facit.org, https://www.facit.org/measure-english-downloads/fact-es-english-downloads.
Day R. Quality of life and tamoxifen in a breast cancer prevention trial: a summary of findings from the NSABP P-1 study. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. Ann N. Y Acad Sci. 2001;949:143–50.
McCowan C, Shearer J, Donnan PT, Dewar JA, Crilly M, Thompson AM, et al. Cohort study examining tamoxifen adherence and its relationship to mortality in women with breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1763–8.
Storms W. Clinical trials: are these your patients? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:S107–11.
Inotai A, Agh T, Maris R, Erdosi D, Kovacs S, Kalo Z, et al. Systematic review of real-world studies evaluating the impact of medication non-adherence to endocrine therapies on hard clinical endpoints in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Treat Rev. 2021;100:102264.
Gabrielson M, Chiesa F, Behmer C, Ronnow K, Czene K, Hall P. Association of reproductive history with breast tissue characteristics and receptor status in the normal breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018;170:487–97.
Gabrielson M, Azam S, Hardell E, Holm M, Ubhayasekera KA, Eriksson M, et al. Hormonal determinants of mammographic density and density change. Breast Cancer Res. 2020;22:95.
Gabrielson M, Hammarstrom M, Backlund M, Bergqvist J, Lang K, Rosendahl AH, et al. Effects of tamoxifen on normal breast tissue histological composition: results from a randomised six-arm placebo-controlled trial in healthy women. Int J Cancer. 2023;152:2362–72.
Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative G, Davies C, Godwin J, Gray R, Clarke M, Cutter D, et al. Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors and other factors to the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen: patient-level meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet. 2011;378:771–84.
Davies C, Pan H, Godwin J, Gray R, Arriagada R, Raina V, et al. Long-term effects of continuing adjuvant tamoxifen to 10 years versus stopping at 5 years after diagnosis of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: ATLAS, a randomised trial. Lancet. 2013;381:805–16.
Force USPST, Owens DK, Davidson KW, Krist AH, Barry MJ, Cabana M, et al. Medication use to reduce risk of breast cancer: US preventive services task force recommendation statement. J Am Med Assoc. 2019;322:857–67.