Mulkey, S. B. Autonomic nervous system development and its’ impact on neuropsychiatric outcome. Pediatr. Res. 85(2), 120–126 (2019).
Malliani, A., Lombardi, F. & Pagani, M. Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability: A tool to explore neural regulatory mechanisms. Br. Heart J. 71, 1–2 (1994).
Porto, L. G. G. et al. Firefighters’ basal cardiac autonomic function and its associations with cardiorespiratory fitness. Work 62(3), 485–495 (2019).
Gnaciński, S. L. et al. Firefighters’ cardiovascular health and fitness: An observation of adaptations that occur during firefighter training academies. Work 54(1), 43–50 (2016).
Ebersole, K. T., Cornell, D. J., Flees, R. J., Shemelya, C. M. & Noel, S. E. Contribution of the autonomic nervous system to recovery in firefighters. J. Athl. Train. 55(9), 1001–1008 (2020).
Van Hasselt, V. B., Bourke, M. L. & Schuhmann, B. B. Firefighter stress and mental health: Introduction to the special issue. Behav. Modif. 46(2), 259–266 (2022).
Yook, Y. S. Firefighters’ occupational stress and its correlations with cardiorespiratory fitness, arterial stiffness, heart rate var-iability, and sleep quality. PLoS ONE 14(12), e0226739 (2019).
Marcel-Millet, P., Groslambert, A. & Ravier, G. Effects on firefighters’ nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity and sleep quality of on-call nights with and without simulated firefighting interventions. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 62(11), e644–e650 (2020).
Deodato, M. et al. Osteopathic manipulative therapy in patients with chronic tension-type headache: A pilot study. J. Am. Osteopathic Assoc. 119(10), 682–687 (2019).
Fornari, M., Carnevali, L. & Sgoifo, A. Single osteopathic manipulative therapy session dampens acute autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to mental stress in healthy male participants. J. Am. Osteopathic Assoc. 117(9), 559–567 (2017).
Haller, H., Lauche, R., Sundberg, T., Dobos, G. & Cramer, H. Craniosacral therapy for chronic pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Musculoskelet. Disord. 21(1), 1 (2019).
Tonello, L. et al. The role of physical activity and heart rate variability for the control of work related stress. Front. Physiol. 21(5), 67 (2014).
Thielmann, B. & Boeckelmann, I. Heart rate variability as an indicator of mental stress in surgeons—A review of the literature. Zentralbl. Chir. 141(5), 577–582 (2016).
Matusik, P. S., Zhong, C., Matusik, P. T., Alomar, O. & Stein, P. K. Neuroimaging studies of the neural correlates of heart rate variability: A systematic review. J. Clin. Med. 12(3), 1016 (2023).
de Vries, H. J. et al. Wearable-measured sleep and resting heart rate variability as an outcome of and predictor for subjective stress measures: A multiple N-of-1 observational study. Sensors (Basel). 23(1), 332 (2022).
Cerritelli, F. et al. Osteopathy modulates brain–heart interaction in chronic pain patients: An ASL study. Sci. Rep. 11, 4556 (2021).
Carnevali, L., Cerritelli, F., Guolo, F. & Sgoifo, A. Osteopathic Manipulative treatment and cardiovascular autonomic parameters in rugby players: A randomized Sham-controlled trial. J. Manipulative Physiol. Ther. 44(4), 319–329 (2021).
Wrzus, C., Luong, G., Wagner, G. G. & Riediger, M. Longitudinal coupling of momentary stress reactivity and trait neuroticism: Specificity of states, traits, and age period. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 121(3), 691–706 (2021).
Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Eur. Heart J. 17(3), 354–381 (1996).
Liem, T. Cranial Osteopathy (Eastland Press, 2009).
Liem, T. Praxis de Kraniosakralen Osteopathie. Thieme. 2019.
Bouscein, A. et al. Society for psychophysiological research ad hoc committee on electrodermal measures. Publication recommendations for electrodermal measurements. Psychophysiology 49(8), 1017–1034 (2012).
Laborde, S., Mosley, E. & Thayer, J. F. Heart rate variability and cardiac vagal tone in psychophysiological research—Recommendations for experiment planning, data analysis, and data reporting. Front. Psychol. 8, 213 (2017).
Hollander, M. & Wolfe, D. A. Nonparametric Statistical Methods (Wiley, 1973).
Miller, R. G. Jr. Simultaneous Statistical Inference (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
Everitt, B. Cluster Analysis (Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., 1974).
Mardia, K. V., Kent, J. T. & Bibby, J. M. Multivariate Analysis (Academic Press, 1979).
R Core Team (2022). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/. (Accessed: 31 September 2022).
Hye-Geum, K., Eun-Jin, Ch., Dai-Seg, B., Young Hwan, L. & Bon-Hoon, K. Stress and heart rate variability: A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Psychiatry Investig. 15(3), 235–245 (2018).
Selye, H. The Stress of Life (Mc Gran-Hill Book Company Inc., 1956).
Wright, B. J. et al. Gender moderates the association between chronic academic stress with top-down and bottom-up attention. Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 84(2), 383–439 (2022).
Bodart, A., Invernizzi, S., Lefebvre, L. & Rossignol, M. Physiological reactivity at rest and in response to social or emotional stimuli after a traumatic brain injury: A systematic review. Front. Psychol. 14, 930177 (2023).
Kivimäki, M. & Steptoe, A. Effects of stress on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Nat. Rev. Cardiol. 15(4), 215–229 (2018).
Mccraty, R. & Shaffer, F. Heart rate variability: New perspectives on physiological mechanisms, assessment of self-regulatory capacity, and health risk. Glob. Adv. Heal. Med. 4, 46–61 (2015).
Schumann, A. et al. Using machine learning to estimate the calendar age based on autonomic cardiovascular function. Front. Aging Neurosci. 14, 899249 (2023).
Pinto, A. M., MacLaughlin, H. L. & Hall, W. L. Heart rate variability and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic kidney disease patients on haemodialysis: A cross-sectional pilot study. Nutrients 13(7), 2453 (2021).
Antoniou, F. & Alkhadim, G. S. The stressful experience of goal orientations under frustration: Evidence using physiological means. Front. Psychol. 13, 823655 (2022).
Ziemssen, T. & Siepmann, T. The investigation of the cardiovascular and sudomotor autonomic nervous system—A review. Front. Neurol. 10, 53 (2019).
Kim, Y., Carver, C. S. & Hurwitz, B. E. Developing a stress induction tool relevant to relationships in a health context. Front. Psychol. 14, 1103081 (2023).
Quaedflieg, C. W. E. M. & Schwabe, L. Memory dynamics under stress. Memory 26(3), 364–376 (2018).
Dopico, J. et al. How do road traffic noise and residential greenness correlate with noise annoyance and long-term stress? Protocol and pilot study for a large field survey with a cross-sectional design. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 20(4), 3203 (2023).
Van der Zwan, J. E. et al. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: A randomized controlled trial. Appl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback. 40, 257–268 (2015).
Hill, L. K. & Thayer, J. F. The autonomic nervous system and hypertension: Ethnic differences and psychosocial factors. Curr. Cardiol. Rep. 21(3), 15 (2019).
Stone, L. B., McCormack, C. C. & Bylsma, L. M. Cross system autonomic balance and regulation: Associations with depression and anxiety symptoms. Psychophysiology 57(10), e13636 (2020).
Pham, T., Lau, Z. J., Chen, S. H. A. & Makowski, D. Heart rate variability in psychology: A review of hrv indices and an analysis tutorial. Sensors (Basel). 21(12), 3998 (2021).
Yeh, T. C. et al. Heart rate variability in major depressive disorder and after antidepressant treatment with agomelatine and paroxetine: Findings from the Taiwan Study of Depression and Anxiety (TAISDA). Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 64, 60–67 (2016).
Hu, M. X. et al. The association of depression and anxiety with cardiac autonomic activity: The role of confounding effects of antidepressants. Depress Anxiety. 36(12), 1163–1172 (2019).
Kidwell, M. & Ellenbroek, B. A. Heart and soul: Heart rate variability and major depression. Behav. Pharmacol. 29(2–3), 152–164 (2018).
Yoon, H. J., Seo, E. H., Kim, J. J. & Choo, I. H. Neural correlates of self-referential processing and their clinical implications in social anxiety disorder. Clin. Psychopharmacol. Neurosci. 17(1), 12–24 (2019).
Chalmers, J. A., Quintana, D. S., Abbott, M. J. & Kemp, A. H. Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced heart rate variability: A meta-analysis. Front. Psychiatry. 5, 80 (2014).
Force T. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Task force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Circulation 93, 1043–1065 (1996).
Tiwari, R., Kumar, R., Malik, S., Raj, T. & Kumar, P. Analysis of heart rate variability and implication of different factors on heart rate variability. Curr. Cardiol. Rev. 17(5), e160721189770 (2021).
Hayano, J. & Yuda, E. Pitfalls of assessment of autonomic function by heart rate variability. J. Physiol. Anthropol. 38(1), 3 (2019).
Shaffer, F., McCraty, R. & Zerr, C. L. A healthy heart is not a metronome: An integrative review of the heart’s anatomy and heart rate variability. Front. Psychol. 5, 1040 (2014).
Shaffer, F. & Ginsberg, J. An overview of heart rate variability metrics and norms. Front. Public Health. 5, 258 (2017).
Jäkel, A. & Von Hauenschild, P. A systematic review to evaluate the clinical benefits of craniosacral therapy. Complement Ther. Med. 20(6), 456–465 (2012).
King, H. H. Craniosacral therapy shown beneficial in management of chronic neck pain. J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc. 116(7), 486–487 (2016).
King, H. H. Manual craniosacral therapy may reduce symptoms of migraine headache. J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc. 117(1), 59 (2017).
Matarán-Peñarrocha, G.A. et al. Influence of craniosacral therapy on anxiety, depression and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2011, 178769. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep125 (2011).
Kim, J. I., Oh, S., Park, H., Min, B. & Kim, J. H. The prevalence and clinical impairment of subthreshold PTSD using DSM-5 criteria in a national sample of Korean firefighters. Depress Anxiety. 37(4), 375–385 (2020).
Lebeaut, A., Tran, J. K. & Vujanovic, A. A. Posttraumatic stress, alcohol use severity, and alcohol use motives among firefighters: The role of anxiety sensitivity. Addict. Behav. 106, 106353 (2020).
Teoh, K. R. H., Lima, E., Vasconcelos, A., Nascimento, E. & Cox, T. Trauma and work factors as predictors of firefighters’ psychiatric distress. Occup. Med. (Lond). 69(8–9), 598–603 (2019).
Prell, R. et al. Heart rate variability, risk-taking behavior and resilience in firefighters during a simulated extinguish-fire task. Front. Physiol. 11, 482 (2020).
Girsberger, W., Bänziger, U., Lingg, G., Lothaller, H. & Endler, P. C. Heart rate variability and the influence of craniosacral therapy on autonomous nervous system regulation in persons with subjective discomforts: A pilot study. J. Integr. Med. 12(3), 156–161 (2014).
Shi, X. et al. Effect of cranial osteopathic manipulative medicine on cerebral tissue oxygenation. J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc. 111(12), 660–666 (2011).
Fazeli, M. S., Pourrahmat, M. M., Liu, M., Guan, L. & Collet, J. P. The effect of head massage on the regulation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system: A pilot randomized crossover trial. J. Altern. Complement Med. 22(1), 75–80 (2016).
Darren, J. E., Hayley, Y., Annabel, C. & Ross, J. The immediate effect of therapeutic touch and deep touch pressure on range of motion, interoceptive accuracy and heart rate variability: A randomized controlled trial with moderation analysis. Front. Integr. Neurosci. 12, 41 (2018).
Crucianelli, L., Enmalm, A. & Ehrsson, H. H. Interoception as independent cardiac, thermosensory, nociceptive, and affective touch perceptual submodalities. Biol. Psychol. 172, 108355 (2022).
Villani, V., Tsakiris, M. & Azevedo, R. T. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation improves interoceptive accuracy. Neuropsychologia 134, 107201 (2019).
Henley, Ch. E., Ivins, D., Mills, M., Wen, F. K. & Benjamin, B. A. Osteopathic manipulative treatment and its relationship to autonomic nervous system activity as demonstrated by heart rate variability: A repeated measures study. Osteopath. Med. Prim. Care. 2, 7 (2008).
Wójcik, M., Dziembowska, I., Izdebski, P. & Żekanowska, E. Pilot randomized single-blind clinical trial, craniosacral therapy vs control on physiological reaction to math task in male athletes. Inter. J. Osteopathic Med. 32, 7–12 (2019).
Wójcik, M., Siatkowski, I. & Żekanowska, E. A proposal for the use of craniosacral therapy in firefighter cadets to decrease cortisol levels and improve postural stability—A randomized trial. J. Mens. Health. 18(6), 140 (2022).
Thayer, J. F. & Brosschot, J. F. Psychosomatics and psychopathology: Looking up and down from the brain. Psychoneuroendocrinology 30, 1050–1058 (2005).
Curiel-Regueros, A., Fernández-Lucas, J. & Clemente-Suárez, V. J. Psychophysiological stress status of soldiers prior to an operative deployment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 19(20), 13637 (2022).
Yiallourou, S. R., Witcombe, N. B., Sands, S. A., Walker, A. M. & Horne, S. C. R. The development of autonomic cardiovascular control is altered by preterm birth. Early Hum. Dev. 89, 145–152 (2013).
Ramsay, D. S. & Woods, S. C. Clarifying the roles of homeostasis and allostasis in physiological regulation. Psychol. Rev. 121, 225–247 (2014).
Porges, S. W. The polyvagal theory: New insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system. Cleve Clin. J. Med. 76(2), S86–S89 (2009).
Naismith, I., Otto Scheiber, C. S., Gonzalez Rodriguez, D. & Petrocchi, N. Physiological response to self-compassion versus relaxation in a clinical population. PLoS ONE 18(2), e0272198 (2023).